Gas Safety Must-Know
Brief Codes for LPG Safety in TaiwanOpen or Close
Brief Codes for LPG Safety in Taiwan
- Storing LPG storage containers in a basement
- Without safety signs of No Open Flames or without fire extinguishers
- Without placing gas leakage alarm devices
- All compressed gas cylinders (including empty ones) without being secured in an upright position at all times, or not being secured to prevent accidental falling
2. In principle, gas cylinders shall be stored outside. Storing inside of buildings shall be in well-ventilated areas, and avoid low-lying areas, staircases, or areas that allow the contents to settle.
3. The location of using LPG cylinders in parallel shall be inspected monthly, including the following items:
- Safety signs of No Open Flames
- Fire extinguishers
- The location of LPG cylinders
- Measures to avoid falling
- Measures to avoid direct sunlight
- Gas pipes
- Rubber hoses
- Gas leakage alarm devices
4. The quantity of LPG stored in special buildings or rooms must not exceed 1000kg.
5. Location of gas leakage alarm devices: For LNG storage, the gas detector placement shall have a distance up to 30cm from the ceiling, and have a minimum distance of 3m away from a gas-fire appliance. For LPG storage, the gas detector placement shall have a distance up to 30cm from the floor, and have a minimum distance of 3m away from a gas-fire appliance.
Codes for LPG Facilities SafetyOpen or Close
1. LPG cylindrical storage tanks (horizontal type) shall be constructed in accordance with the CNS12654, and CNS certification shall be provided.
2. All piping for LPG use shall be installed in accordance with the CNS12856.
3. Decompressors and evaporators for LPG use shall meet the requirements of the CNS12653 or the minimum equivalent of CNS12653.
4. Warning signs shall be displayed visibly around storage tanks.
5. Fire safety equipments for LPG plant use shall be placed in accordance with the CNS12854, including fire extinguishers.
6. If there's any gas leaking possibility in buildings or rooms, gas leakage alarm devices shall be installed in accordance with the CNS12479.
7. Fire safety equipments shall be inspected at least once every day. Take prevention measures immediately to avoid danger if any malfunction is found.
Codes for Placement of Fire Safety EquipmentsOpen or Close
1. Automatic fire alarm equipments for gas leakage shall be placed under Article 140 to Article 145.
2. Indicating signs of equipment shall be placed under Article 146 to Article 156.
3. Article 208, protective equipments shall be configured in the following places unless water fog spraying devices have been configured:
- Manufacturing plants of flammable high-pressure gases
- Storage of more than 3,000kg of flammable high-pressure gases or NG tanks
- Unloading areas for gas tank trucks
- Fuelling position of gas stations, manholes of gas tanks, compressors, and pumps.
4.The fire extinguisher used in the places of flammable high-pressure gas storage, LPS station, NG tank storage, and flammable high-pressure gas storage shall comply with Article 228.
5. The fire extinguisher and its indicating plates shall be placed under Article 31- Subparagraph 4.
6. The cooling sprinkling equipment used in the places of flammable high-pressure gases, LPS station, NG tank storage, and flammable high-pressure gas storage shall be placed under Article 229 as the following:
- Sprinkler monitor or drilled pipe shall be used for water sprinkling to ensure the sprinkle evenly on the protecting subjects.
- Drilling pipes shall comply with the provisions of CNS12854, and the diameter of the drilled holes shall be more than 4mm.
- The sprinkling volume shall be more than 5l/min per square meter. The sprinkling volume may be reduced by a half if the protected object is coated by rockwool with a thickness of more than 25mm or any material that possess equivalent fire resistance with the outer layer is coated by zinc iron plate with a thickness of more than 0.35mm that comply with CNS1244 or other material of the equivalent strength and fire resistance.
- The volume of water source shall be more than the water volume discharged by pressurization and driving device for 30 consecutive minutes.
- The structure and the manual station shall apply mutais mutandis to the case as referred to in Article 216.
7. The protected area referred to in the preceding Article shall be calculated in accordance with the following provisions:
- For a storage tank, the protected area is the outer surface area of the body (for a cylinder, including the terminal plates) and the exposed surface area of the liquid level meter and the valves attached to the tank.
- For equipment other than prescribed in the preceding Subparagraph, the protected area refers to the exposed surface area. however, if the manufacturing equipment is more than 5m above the ground, the exposed surface area horizontally cut in an invertal of 5m shall be the protected area.
Codes for Flammable Compressed Gas Cylinder StorageOpen or Close
1. Place warning signs and explosion proof emergency lighting systems.
2. Install automatic fire alarm equipments for gas leakage.
3. Install effective ventilation devices to avoid gas retention.
4. For the single-storey buildings constructed in nonflammable materials, the roof shall be covered with light metal sheets or other light nonflammble materials, and the eave shall be at least 2.5 m high from the ground.
5. Keep temperature below 40° C and away from direct sunlight.
6. Gas cylinders that contain fuel gases whether full or empty must be stored separately, vertical, and keep objects away that could fall on them. Gas cylinders shall be secured to prevent any accidental falling or damages.
7.The access area shall be at least 20% of the storage area.
8. No open flames within 2m of gas cylinder storage area, and without any flammable materials, except that the wall is constructed in reinforced concrete or the minimum equivalent of RC, and the thickness is at least 9cm.
9. The lightning protection equipment shall meet CNS12872, or ground wire or other ways are used to get protection, except for the safe surrounding or environment without any possibility of danger.
10. Every person with easily ignited materials, devices, equipments must not allow access to the storage area.
11. A dedicated controller shall be assigned.
Difference Between Gases and COOpen or Close
- Gases, referred to flammable gases generally, that are colorless, odorless, tasteless, and non-toxic. An artificaial smell added to gases is the source of the odor.
- Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), also called Natural Gas (NG), is primarily composed of methane.
- NG is lighter than air, so it will disperse into the atmosphere.
- Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG), also called propane tank or LPG tank, is primarily composed of propane and butane.
- LPG gas (vapor) is heavier than air, so it will settle when leaking indoors.
- Gas explosions can occur when gases are exposed to an ignition source such as heat or fire.
(Check the following chart about carbon monoxide (CO).)
學名 英文名稱 化學式 爆炸下限 比重(空氣=1) 甲烷 Methane CH4 5% 0.55 丙烷 Propane C3H8 2.1% 1.56 丁烷 Butane C4H10 1.9% 2.01 異丁烷 Isobutane C4H10 1.8% 2.01
一氧化碳濃度 暴露時間對人體的影響 50PPM 一般而言8小時內尚無徵狀。(OSHA*最大允許暴露條件) 200PPM 2~3小時內輕微頭痛、噁心、疲倦感、暈眩。 400PPM 1~2小時內劇烈頭痛、噁心、疲倦感、頭暈。 800PPM 45分內噁心，抽搐，2小時內無意識，2~3小時內可能死亡。 1600PPM 20分內頭痛、噁心、無意識，1小時內可能死亡。 3200PPM 5~10分內頭痛、噁心、無意識，25~30分內可能死亡。 6400PPM 1~2分內頭痛、噁心、無意識，大約在30分鐘之內死亡。 12800PPM 1~3分內立即死亡。